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Kidney Stones: Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Removal Surgery Recommendations

Posted by Dr. R. K. Mehta on 19 July 2022

According to a recent report, nearly 12% of Indians suffer from kidney stones and urinary complications. While it is a non-serious medical condition if detected early, ignoring the early symptoms of kidney stones can result in surgery. Unsurprisingly, hundreds of thousands of people go through kidney stone removal surgery across India.

Even in 2022, many individuals are not familiar with the causes of kidney stones and what are the best kidney stone removal treatments. On account of this, Apex Hospital - best urologist in Sirsa - decided to share everything about kidney stones and illustrate the best kidney stone removal treatments.

Let’s start with the definition first.

What is a kidney stone?

Kidney stones, also known as nephrolithiasis, are aggregated chemical substances dissolved in the urine. Its formation occurs when the concentration of the chemical waste reaches a particular point and starts crystallizing into a permanent form called a kidney stone. It either stays in the kidney or travels down the urinary tract into the ureter depending upon the size of the kidney stone.

Types of kidney stones

Calcium oxalate: One of the most common types of kidney stones, these ones are created when calcium combines with the oxalate in the urine. Inadequate calcium intake leads to this condition.

Uric acid: Higher production of monosodium urate also leads to the production of kidney stones.  Foods such as meat and fish have a high concentration of a chemical compound called purine, which is the main culprit for the formation of monosodium urate.

Cystine: Cystine stones are typically larger than other kidney stones that usually occur due to a rare disorder called cystinuria. Under this condition, a natural substance called cysteine is leaked into the urine and thus causes kidney stone formation.

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Struvite: This type of kidney stone is formed due to an infection in upper urinary tract called UTI. Struvite stone grows very quickly and becomes quite large as compared to other types of kidney stones.

These are the different kidney stone types. Now, let’s discover the main causes of kidney stones.

Kidney stone causes

Below are the major causes of kidney stone formation:

Dehydration: Not drinking enough water in your day-to-day life increases the risk of kidney stone formation. People living in warm climatic conditions are more vulnerable to kidney stone formation.

Overweight: People with high body mass index are also linked to an increased chance of calcium-containing kidney stone development. So, maintain your proper body weight by performing regular exercises.

Sodium-rich diet: Consuming a sodium-rich diet also influences kidney stone formation. That’s because too much salt in your diet increases the amount of sodium your kidney filters and eventually leads to kidney stone development.

Medical conditions: Health issues like renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism, and repeated urinary tract infections also increase the risk of kidney stones.

Digestive diseases: Gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease, or chronic diarrhea can cause changes in the digestive process that affect your absorption of calcium and water, increasing the amounts of stone-forming substances in your urine.

Kidney stone symptoms

 While severe pain on either side of your lower back is referred to as the main sign of kidney stone, other reasons for kidney stone are:

    Blood in urine

    Nausea or vomiting

    High fever

    The urine smells very bad and looks cloudy

    Pain in the stomach that doesn’t go away

These are the primary symptom of kidney stones. Now let’s discover the kidney stone treatment.

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Kidney stone removal surgery

Drinking a lot of water is one of the best home remedies recommended by urologists to treat kidney stone removal at the initial stage. However, if the kidney stone blocks the flow of urine and there is a sign of infection, kidney stone removal with surgery is recommended.  Below are the different types of surgery for kidney stone removal:

    Shock-wave lithotripsy


    Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

Kidney stone removal surgery: Endnote

These are valuable insights into kidney stones. Kidney stones can be fatal to human life if the symptoms are ignored and the right steps are not taken for kidney stone removal. In case you are experiencing any sign of kidney stone mentioned above, it’s better to consult a urology specialist.

Apex Hospital is home to the best urology specialists in Sirsa, Hanumangarh, Nohar, and Mansa. Our team of doctors provides service through modern equipment, new treatments, and expert medical consultation. Our urology department has helped thousands of patients to have successful kidney stone removal surgery since 2001 and is home to the best urologists in Sirsa.

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