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5 Causes of Infertility & Low Sperm Count: Men’s Guide

Posted by Dr. (Mrs.) Manisha Mehta on 28 June 2022

According to a recent report by AIIMS, about 10-15 percent of couples in India are said to have infertility issues. Millions of men in India are experiencing infertility leading to low chances of parenthood. A lot of them are taking medication or making changes in their lifestyle to increase their sperm count and increase overall male fertility. 

Still, many men are not familiar with the causes behind male infertility. On account of this, Apex Hospital - best IVF center in Sirsa - decided to share male infertility causes and also illustrate the ways to increase sperm count and improve overall fertility. Read on! 

Let’s start with the definition of infertility.

What is male infertility?

Male infertility is referred to as a condition when a male is unable to conceive a female partner.  Under this condition, the fertilization process does not occur majorly due to the inability of male sperm in reaching the women’s egg. 

Now, let’s discover the main causes of male infertility.

What are the causes of male infertility?

Below are the reasons that contribute to males infertility:

Low sperm production or motility: Also known as oligospermia, motility is a condition in which a male produces fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen and decreases the odds of fertilizing his partner's eggs. Smoking tobacco, alcohol abuse, prolonged illness, and depression are the most common causes of low sperm count in males. Additionally, being born with a fertility disorder can also lead to low sperm count.

Varicocele: An enlargement of the veins within the loose bag of the skin that holds the testicles (scrotum)  causes varicocele. This medical condition arises when the blood pools in the veins rather than circulating out of the scrotum. This eventually leads to poor development of testicles and then causes problems that lead to male infertility. While there is no drug to prevent varicocele, open surgery ligation is the main treatment performed by urologists to cure this infertility cause. Urologists at Sirsa have supported many patients with the same. 

Ejaculation problem: Retrograde ejaculation is another infertility cause that occurs when semen enters the bladder rather than emerging out of the penis. Also, known as a dry orgasm, is a rare type of ejaculation problem which originates if the nerves that surround the neck of the bladder get damaged. Other causes of retrograde ejaculation are diabetes and medications like alpha-blocker, which is often used to treat blood pressure problems. Pseudoephedrine (commonly used as a decongestant) is the most effective medication used to treat retrograde ejaculation caused due to diabetes. 

Tumor: Benign tumor can also cause infertility in males as it directly affects the male reproductive system. These non-cancerous cells attack the glands that release reproduction hormones, eventually leading to male infertility. Also known as a nonmalignant tumor, it occurs when the normal cells multiply at a rapid speed and stay alive for a longer time. Medical treatments like surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy also affect male fertility. 

Chromosome defects: Inherent disorders such as Klinefelter's syndrome causes abnormal development of male reproductive organs. This chromosome abnormality predisposes to male infertility as the male is born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome instead of one X and one Y. Other genetic syndromes associated with male infertility include cystic fibrosis, Kallmann's syndrome, and Kartagener's syndrome. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is used to treat these chromosome defects. During this treatment one or two cells are removed from the embryo of biopsied cells.  

Other causes of male infertility 

While these are the most common causes of male infertility. Other causes of male infertility include:

    1. Exposure to radiation or X rays
    2. Overheating of testicles
    3. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking
    4. Obesity 
    5. Emotional stress and depression

Signs of infertility in men

While an inability to conceive a child is referred to as the main sign of male infertility, other factors that contribute to male infertility are:

  1. Problems with sexual functions
  2. Pain or swelling in the testicle area
  3. Lower sperm count
  4. Hormonal abnormality
  5. Growth of breast tissues in men
  6. Unusual loss or reduction in sense of smell

Infertility in men: Endnote

These are the most common causes that lead to male infertility. The production of sperm is a complex process and requires normal functioning of the testicles (testes) as well as the hypothalamus and pituitary glands — organs in your brain that produce hormones that trigger sperm production. In case you are experiencing any sign of male infertility mentioned above, it’s better to consult an infertility specialist.

Apex Hospital is home to the best gynecologists and infertility specialists in Sirsa, Hanumangarh, Nohar, and Mansa. Our team of doctors provides service through modern equipment, new treatments, and expert medical consultation. Our fertility department has helped more than 10,000 infertile couples conceive since 2001 and is home to the best surgeons in Sirsa.

Still, got questions to ask? Send them to and get a quick reply from infertility specialists. 

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